Ancient cities, structures and buildings of France
At the beginning of the 6th C. BC Asia minor Greeks founded several colonies on the coast of South France: Massalia (Marseille), Antipolis (Antibes, Antibes) and others They brought with them the Greek principles of urban design and technique of construction of squares oblong stones, stapled, and the masonry of small stones on the solution of clay (see Ancient Greece). Literary sources indicate the existence in Marseille temples of Artemis and Apollo (nigerianigeria capital from 6th century BC sculpture the stele of the same period, in Marseilles and attic painted pottery). Celtic settlements with fortifications of stone and wood in the early iron age give way to the stone defensive structures (Alésia, Alesia, near Dia-on, etc.).
In 2-1 centuries up to p. E. Gaul was conquered by the Romans, who founded several towns, clocked strictly according to the Roman rules: Arles (ARL), Lugdunum (Lyon), Augustodunum (Autun), Nemausus (Him), Arausio (orange), Lutetium (Paris), etc. So, Lugdunum crossed the main streets with a width of 5 m and 9 m, stretches for 300m. The city had a forum with temples of the Capitoline gods, the ruler’s Palace, buildings of the Curia, the court, wooden circus, amphitheatre, theatre for 11 thousand spectators and rare for cities of the Roman Empire, the Odeon — a round building (diameter m) with mosaic flooring, covered (except the Central part) of the roof. During the reign of Augustus (27 BC— 14 ad) the city walls are enclosed in the gate, typically flanked by two towers (town gate in Nimes). Already in the 1st century BC the Roman fortifications and public buildings (so-called bridge Le Pont du Gard, late 1st century BC— early HS. ad, near Nimes, see Ancient Rome). In the days of the Empire in rural areas are built villas of Roman Italy-ski type. The Romans introduced regular masonry mortar, arched and vaulted construction is firmly entrenched in construction equipment.
By the end of the 1st century ad it becomes the General masonry of alternating rows of small stones and bricks. In Gaul spread Roman temple-pseudoperipteral with a strong Pro-stylish portico (the so-called Rectangular house, “Maison Carre”, in Nimes, late 1st century BC— early 1st century ad). Actually Gallo-Roman type of Church differs from Rome’s orientation in the opposite direction and the plan of the cella: round (Tour de Vaison in Perigueux). square (the temple of Janus in Oteye), octagonal (the temple in Monbay, Montbouy, Loiret), cruciform (Church in Sens, Sanxay, Vienne). Built numerous theatres and amphitheatres (theatres of the late 1st century BC— early 1st century ad in Arles and the 1st century ad in orange), the arc de Triomphe in Saint-Re-mi, Carpentras (Carpentras, Vaucluse) and the orange. Type of mausoleum is represented by the tomb of Julia in Saint-Remy (1st century BC); he discovers traces of an obvious impact of Lystra monument-the one in Athens (see Greece, Ancient) and the Mausoleum at Halicarnassus (see Greece, Ancient Turkey), the similarity with the cemetery architecture in Pompeii (see Italy). In the same Saint-rémy-preserved remains of houses Dating back to the time before 32 BC similar to the type of Hellenistic houses in Delos (see Ancient Greece) with porticos, peristiani and antes. Pompeian houses and stickage type (see Rome
Ancient) opened in Vaison-La Romea (Vaison-la-Romaine, Vaucluse).
Most Roman buildings in France, decorated with rich sculptural ornamentation, numerous reliefs and statues round, but they are all characterized by the famous plaque of provincialism. Another group of architectural monuments of the Gallo-Roman period is more connected with the local traditions (the so-called temple of mercury on Mont-Donon, Mont Donon, the Lower Rhine; the ruins of the temple of Diana on the top near Le Puy). Their severe forms, of square section columns and stepped Gables reminiscent of the architecture of the dolmens. Local tradition Dating back to glyptoteket sculptural monuments of culture, characteristic of many cultic and funerary statues this time. Digesting developed forms of Roman art, masters, natives of Gallic environment, at the same time, interpretation has continued the tradition of the early Celtic sculpture. This was particularly evident in the funerary reliefs of the dead, and domestic scenes.
In the sepulchral statue of an elderly man, draped in a Roman toga (stone, early 1st century ad Museum of pagan and Christian art. Arles), hard facial features, round, lifeless eyes, the desire to emphasize the frontal aspect of talking about the work of local craftsmen. Hard straight lines of the contour, the statics and the dullness and distinguished by the statue of the Gallic chief of Vacher (in the Lower Alps; stone, 1 p. V. E. Calvet Museum, Avignon). Wonderful Gallo-Roman art is the bust of a blind girl (limestone, Archaeological Museum, Dijon), large clear carved planes and then gently modeled.
In the middle. 3 V. the invasion of the Germanic tribes devastated and destroyed the Gallo-Roman cities. In the late 3 — early 4 centuries, built mainly of fortifications around cities, the remains of which are preserved at Beauvais, Amiens, Toulouse, etc. In the 4th century began to revive civil architecture, construction of Christian religious buildings.
During the reign of Emperor Constantine I (306-337) structures are becoming huge size and built of brick and stone in equal proportions (Terme de latroy in Arles). However, the city does not rise from the ruins, and all the efforts of napravleniya aerogeneratori.