Ancient structures

Architecture is one of the oldest art forms, expressing in religious and public facilities the Outlook of the people in a particular historical period, a particular art style. A. the synthesis is perceived in all forms of art and artistic creativity, to human activities in General.

ARCHITECTURE (lat. architecture, from GK. architektôn — Builder; eng. FR. architecture, it. Architektur. Baukunst), architecture — building, other structures or their complexes forming material, artistically organized environment of human life. Also — the art of shaping this spatial environment, to create a new reality of having a functional value, generating a man a favor and give aesthetic pleasure. The term covers the design appearance of structures; the organisation of internal space; the choice of materials for outdoor and indoor use, system design natural and artificial lighting, and utility systems; water and electricity; decoration.

There are three main types of architecture.

architecture of big structures. It includes iconic and fortified buildings, houses, public buildings (schools, theatres, stadiums, shops, etc.), industrial buildings (factories, power plants, etc.);

landscape architecture associated with the organization of garden space (squares, boulevards and parks with the “small” architecture — gazebos, bridges, fountains, stairs);

urban development, covering the construction of new towns and villages and reconstruction of old urban areas.

The architecture sprang from religious needs (menhirs, dolmens) and from the desire of a person to protect himself from the elements of nature — from the first coating. Architecture in a particular way and organizes distributes in space the mass of material. Direct architectural properties of the material are the length (volume), weight, surface properties, etc. We see in the architectural work of gravity and its overcoming, which is expressed in the interaction of volumes, rhythms, light and shade; correlate its size with the human figure. The artistic expression of the ratio of the load and the supports inherent in the structural system of construction is called tectonics.

Tectonics of the masses is the form, language, means the architectural style, while the organization of the space is the content, the idea, the purpose of architectural creativity. The architectural style is based on techniques and styles peculiar to the culture of a certain period, while the style may be called by the name of the architect or group of architects have implemented it.

Architecture refers to not only the authorities, but to the totality of sensual and spiritual perception of man. Architecture is perceived not only in space but also in time: the motion of the structure around and within him; when comparing the appearance and character of the interior life and spiritual significance of the building.

Architecture means the art of designing and constructing buildings and structures according to their practical purpose, modern technical features and aesthetic views of society. As a material part of people’s livelihoods and as part of the means of production (industrial architecture, residential and public buildings). Architecture belongs to the sphere of material culture, as an important type of plastic arts — to the sphere of spiritual and artistic culture.

Aesthetically shaping the living environment of society, architecture expresses a specific artistic means the dominant view of his age, ideas and aspirations of their society. The historical development of architecture from prehistoric megalithic structures, ancient Egyptian and Mexican pyramids, cave-temples of India and China, from the ancient Acropolis and forums, temples and medieval fortresses to palaces and Park ensembles of the Renaissance, Baroque and classicism up to modern architecture of the 21st century were determined by specific destination and typology of buildings, their structural systems and materials, and stylistic systems of his time. Architectural space organization of cities and towns, the regulation of settlement systems constitute a special area of architecture, town-planning, the formation of the natural and green spaces — gardening, the organization of internal space of buildings — the art of the interior.

In the architecture of interconnected functional-technical and spiritual-aesthetic principle: it is based on the Trinity of use, durability and beauty. Practical architecture associated with the plan and volume-spatial structure of buildings; construction machinery determines the feasibility of the project; the ideological-figurative content of the work.

Specific artistic means of architecture are: composition, tectonics, scale, proportion, rhythm, plastic of volumes and surfaces, texture and color of building materials, the synthesis of arts and Architecture etc. is the basis of unification of sculpture, painting and other spatial and temporal forms of artistic expression — no wonder architecture is referred to as the “mother of all arts”. Social progress, science and technology, new aesthetic concepts breathes life like never before with innovative solutions and shape design problems of Architecture as art.

Architecture is thus one of the main (along with the fine and decorative arts) of the spatial arts, which can be defined as:

artistic and organized space for human activity;

the set of objects that contribute to the artistic organization of space with its presence, location and functioning;

the combination of creative processes aimed at the creation of the artistic image of organized space and organizing its objects, or, in other words, the activity of the architect. In most cases, architectural activities aimed at making objects which not only their existence but also the purpose and basic formal properties already predefined to the practical needs, technical possibilities and economic calculation. Such objects are buildings (religious, administrative, residential, industrial, public, etc.), public urban spaces (squares, streets, parks), as well as complexes of buildings and open spaces (areas of the city, etc.), which is documented as an artistic unity, called architectural ensembles.

However, artless reality not only indicates the boundaries of architectural creativity — and it affects his race, reflected in the imagistic structure of the architecture. So, the way the buildings are, in particular, expressive, understandable to the viewer the image of the building structure. This does not mean that artistically perfect construction will certainly Express in his appearance of his own design, among buildings of different eras and countries, there are many of the universally acknowledged masterpieces, whose appearance even hides it from view. And a still visible image of any structure, no matter how far she stood from the real static system of the building, will always be there, if the building is a work of architecture. In the architectural image reflects and functional properties of constructions of the inaccessibility or the transparency, capacity or comfort.

Like any other art, architecture always reflects in their styles and individual works ideal contemporary era, and reflects this ideal in all its diversity. However, because of its openness, the masses of people and the stability and strength of their works architecture over the other arts is capable of transmitting socially organizing aspect of the contemporary ideal, the spirit of orderliness and reasonable laws. Apart from the scale of works of architecture contributes to this characteristic the underlining rhythm and proportions.

Because of its nesobrannosti, as well as the limited range of its forms and motives, often architectural image needs, supplementing and enriching the means of art. This circumstance, and the relative vastness of dimensions making architectural space is particularly suitable environment for the synthesis of the arts.

 

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