Basic styles of Christian chemostate
First, this period it is more logical to call it not the ancient and medieval meaning of the ancient pre-Christian history. Secondly, not all researchers agree with the top edge of this period, subsuming here the XVII century. We are all the same it seems that the seventeenth century marks such a radical change of culture, lifestyle, mentality of people (all this is reflected in the architecture, and the temple in particular). that it should be considered a separate era. Good should be considered separately and XVI century, but there are no significant fracture worldview.
Further, not everyone will agree with the fact that in X-XVI centuries we are dealing with only one architectural style: some would call self styles Godunov’s classicism, steepled Gothic, even hagiographic style, Rublevsky style, etc.; others regard all phenomena in the art of the period of ancient Rus uniform style. Again, someone tries with varying success to apply to the ancient Russian architecture European concepts (Gothic, Renaissance, etc.). and someone says its totally distinctive character.
Some researchers, examining ancient architecture, its divided by period: architecture predlagaemogo period, the architecture of the times of feudal fragmentation, the architecture of XIV-XV centuries, etc., A. I. Nekrasov divided the whole period into three epochs (addition, development and maturity). and inside each epoch have identified three styles (the last four). He has also developed a range of styles, received no recognition.
Others prefer to talk about the architecture of the specific regions: Kiev, Vladimir-Suzdal, Pskov, Novgorod, Moscow, keeping in mind that within the same region, monuments of, say, XII and XV centuries differ very little. (When compared, for example, the Pskov Spaso-Preobrazhensky Cathedral of Mirozhsky monastery (1156) and the Church of St. Nicholas at Usage (1536), they are very similar — and initially were even more similar, as the Transfiguration Cathedral was later rebuilt. Some of the researchers observed that to distinguish between the XII and XVI century it is impossible on the eyes, and by touch only — the earlier monuments are uneven, sherokhovatoi the surface of the walls, as if from the hand sculpted. ) Accordingly, the proponents of this point of view is considered as a separate regional styles: the style of architecture of Pskov and Novgorod architecture, early Moscow, Kiev, etc. — of course, they could on each other to interfere, to blend, and, of course, were phenomena that do not fit within the stylistic framework of this region. And the fact that churches of different ages all differ, and is one of the main features of the style: that it evolves over time, undergoes a number of stages: nucleation — development — maturity — decline — extinction style. Recognizing that not everything is so simple, we assume in this case, it is this point of view. However, we say, what style is considered the architecture of a particular period of the supporters of the division of ancient architecture periods and styles, and we list the main features of these styles.
So here we (briefly) consider what it would be called a set of regional styles of the Russian middle Ages. Just not worth it, speaking of the middle Ages, to ascribe to him the epithet of “gloomy”. It’s a bourgeois thinkers, in an effort to build a society based on the principles of freedom, equality, brotherhood, condemned the preceding period, which was actually one of the most interesting in history.