Croatia ancient architecture
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Croatian culture has absorbed a variety of influences that in the first place is due to the difficult history of this country. Painting, music and architecture developed under the influence of European and even Asian countries. But purely Croatian culture remained for the entire world virtually unknown Today, after independence, Croatia has been actively promoting their own talents, not hiding his success under the banner of Yugoslavia. Croatian culture is dynamically developing and is flourishing.
Croatian architecture is extremely varied, which is surprising, given the small size of this country. Unfortunately, the civil war has caused irreparable damage to many monuments. In 1991 suffered Dubrovnik, but thanks to the international funds managed to recover. However, in the East many interesting and significant monuments that had been damaged in the war, still waiting for recovery.
In Croatia has preserved many of its ancient history. Illyrian fortress served as reliable strongholds for centuries. The Illyrians and built many fortified settlements in the interior of the country. The amphitheatre in Pula and Diocletian’s Palace in split – a great Roman monuments. The Romans are well settled in Croatia as evidenced by the monuments that have survived in other cities, such as Salon and the resort Aqua Balissa. At the beginning of the first Millennium the Romans used Croatia as a resort.
The decline of Rome and rise of Constantinople (the Byzantine Empire) had a significant impact on religious and secular Croatian architecture. Buildings in the Romanesque style characterized by simple round arches and vaulted ceilings. The best example of such architecture is the Basilica in poreč Eufrasia relating to the VI century, the Cathedral of St. Mary in the Servant, and the Church of St. Donatus in For the gift. The Church has often imitated the Roman forms. For construction were used Roman stone from the abandoned Roman settlements.
Gothic and Renaissance
When the Venetians occupied the Dalmatian coast, they brought with them a refined Gothic style. Arches became pointed, and not round. On the Islands and on the coast of the Venetians built many churches and other buildings, but they were subsequently rebuilt and changed, so that today in Croatia it is difficult to find pure Gothic structure. Interest are St. Mark’s Cathedral in Korcula. The rector’s Palace in Dubrovnik and the tower of Kamerlengo in Trogir.Buildings in the Renaissance style, erected in the XV-XVI century are preserved more. In this period, the influence of Venice was, as ever, strong. City walls, preserved in split, hit high development of military engineering. Magnificent civic buildings can be seen at almost any port on each Dalmatian island. Note on the Old Balcony at the town hall Sibenik and Trogir and split .
In the Ottoman period (1526-1693) were strengthened and erected walls, but more Turkish influence is not felt in anything. Mosques and madrasas were destroyed during the liberation wars. Under the influence of the Habsburgs (end of XVI – the middle of XVIII century) in Northern Croatia developed Baroque architecture.
Baroque is characterized by the fluidity of complex curved shapes, spatial scale and splendor. This is a complete departure from structures of the Renaissance. The Church is richly ornamented, and civil buildings and palaces were impressed by the size.
In Zagreb has preserved many beautiful Baroque buildings, including the Museum of the history of Croatia and the Palace of Volkovicha-Orsica. Noteworthy are the Cathedral of the assumption of Mary in Varaždin and the facades of the houses overlooking the main area of Pozega.
In the modern era (after 1750) the architects have paid attention to the monuments of the past. In Vogue neoclassical and neo-Gothic styles. The best ensembles in these styles remained at <green horseshoe designtimesp=5368> in Donji Grad (the Lower town) in Zagreb. These structures belong to the late nineteenth century Note on the Parliament building in Zagreb and the Church of Saints Peter and Paul in Osijek.
Croatian art developed under the strong influence of foreign artists and craftsmen. Painters and sculptors arrived here from Rome, Venice, Constantinople and Vienna. However, the Croat people were their talents.
The best examples of Croatian sculptures are of a religious nature, which is not surprising, since churches and monasteries for centuries were the main customers of works of art. However, those who worked for the Church, often remained unknown.
One of the pearls of the coast, North Dalmatia – a magnificent portal of the Cathedral in Trogir. There are still some signed by the master Radovan, but, although he was a native of this area, about his life and work nothing is known.
Carver, master Buvina, cut out the great gate of the Cathedral in split, referring to the beginning of the XIII century carved panels 28 are considered to be a true masterpiece of the Romanesque period.
Something we know about Giorgio Orsini, or Yuri Dalmatians (1420 – 1473), as it was called. This wizard worked on the construction of the Cathedral in Sibenik. He was one of the best architects of the Italian Renaissance.
The most famous modern Croatian sculptor Ivan Meštrović (1883-1962). He was born in an ordinary family, but his talent manifested itself at a very early age. Fame came to him in 1911, after winning the Rome international award. After the First world war, Mestrovic creates the Committee, whose main objective is to increase awareness of the Slavic peoples.The most productive was the period between the two world wars. After the Second world war he adapted the left of Yugoslavia. He settled in the U.S., but the bulk of his creative heritage he left behind. A beautiful collection of his works is now in the Museum of Zagreb, which is located in one of the houses of the artist.
In Croatia there were two serious artistic direction, have received international recognition. In Dubrovnik in XV-XVI centuries, wealthy patrons supported the arts, which has made possible what is today called Dubravitskoy school. Artists and their students worked primarily in the field of religious art. Croatian painter Julius Klovic (1498-1578) was considered as the best miniature painter of his time. However, at home, he practically did not work.In 30-ies of XX century in the village of Hlebine close to Zagreb appeared the HLA-Banska school. The school has evolved in parallel with social movement <Land DESIGNTIMESP=5385>. It is not surprising that the main attention artists paid to the peasant, the so-called naive art. The main representatives of Chlebinska school – Krsto hegedu the Sich, Ivan Generalic, Mraz Franjo and Mirko Virius. Their work can be seen in the Museum of primitive art in Zagreb.
In the Museum of modern art in Rijeka presents the best Croatian and Slovenian artists. It hosts very interesting exhibitions. Unfortunately, the artists of the former Yugoslavia has not received recognition abroad. The most famous of them Shota Miroslav, born in 1936, He created the national flag and the coat of arms of Croatia.