France – Salvador Dali
The birthplace of Gothic architecture was France, experiencing at XII-XIII. co-schy heyday. In Central France in the XII century was built the Church of the Abbey of Saint Denis. When its construction was first applied to the frame structure and stained glass Windows. One of the masterpieces of French Gothic style is the Cathedral of Notre Dame (the Cathedral was built in the X1-ХIVв.) — the famous Paris Notre Dame. Other Gothic cathedrals it stands out austere grandeur of its appearance.
Notre Dame is a grandiose three-nave Basilica, simultaneously holding about 9,000 people. Also magnificent and the Cathedral in Chartres, more than all Gothic cathedrals rich in sculpture — the number of statues reaches 2000. Sample “Mature Gothic” and “Academy of arts” has become the famous French Cathedral in Reims — the traditional place of coronation of the kings of France. Wonderful statues that adorn the West facade of the Cathedral, especially the sculptural composition “the Meeting of Mary and Elizabeth”.
The sculpture of Reims Cathedral is considered to be unsurpassed masterpiece of Gothic sculpture. In France the most famous Gothic monastery of Mont Saint-Michel in Normandy, which stands on a cliff. It was called La Merva that means “miracle” or “wonder”. Almost simultaneously with Reims began construction of the Cathedral in Amiens (1220). Then the Cathedral was rebuilt and reconstructed. Lyenski Cathedral — the big and tall Gothic structure in France: its length — 145 m, the height of the vault of the Central nave and 42.5 m. the Peak of development of the so-called “rayonnant Gothic” (XIII century) was the chapel of king Louis IX Saint-Shapely in Paris. It was built as a Royal Church; it was brought from Constantinople “the crown of thorns of Christ”. In the XIII century Gothic won almost all regions of France, gaining at the North and South of the country specific features.
Thus, in the North of France, in Normandy, the largest Gothic temple was Rouen Cathedral, not inferior in size to the Amiens and Reims, but has retained some features of the local architecture, close to the Romanesque style — powerful tower above the crossing, as well as high heavy tower on the West facade. Dessert recipes. In the South of France, in Languedoc, Gothic architecture had become fortress nature were often used towers resembling a donjon. Germany. The Gothic architecture of Germany almost a century behind in its development from French. It long preserved severity of Romanesque and even in its heyday to less ornate than the Gothic architecture of France (cathedrals of Cologne, Freiburg and Strasbourg are the exception). German cathedrals in the easier French, but they are higher. Especially in high German the Gothic spires of the tower..
There buildings were often built of brick. The most famous Gothic Cathedral Germany — Cologne (begun in 1248 finished in the XVI century the tower was built in the XIX century). A magnificent sculpture of the Cathedral with the outer walls passed into the interior of the Church. She rhythmically connected with the architecture, but not with its stone mass, and the curves of vaulting and arches. The statues themselves also have the characteristic curves in the shape of the letter 8. Sculpture Cologne Cathedral is unusually emotional. England. Gothic architecture of England began to develop from the XII century and has acquired a pronounced national identity. English cathedrals are concentrated mainly in the lands of the monasteries and not in the cities. Their characteristic feature is the presence of two transepts, one shorter than the other. Such prosperity is less ornate than the Gothic architecture of France (cathedrals of Cologne, Canterbury Cathedral — the residence of the head of the Anglican Church; in the cathedrals of Lincoln, wells, Salisbury (XIII century).
English cathedrals have a considerable length: they were built in an open area and had the opportunity to run not only upwards, but also sideways. For English Gothic characterized by stretched facades, different vestibules, far transepts, a square apse, a huge tower above the crossing, but the relatively small height of the nave (towards the side). A leading role the English played Gothic decorative elements, for example, was a typical color contrast between the different types of stone. The place of coronation and burial of English kings — the main Cathedral of prosperity remained less elegant than Gothic architecture of France (cathedrals of Cologne, and Westminster Abbey in London — more than other Gothic cathedrals of England close to French models. Of civil Gothic of England the famous Westminster Palace (XIV century).
Spain. Gothic Spain was influenced by Moorish (Arab) architecture, hence its excessive opulence and decorativeness (the cathedrals at Leon, Burgos, Toledo). Italy. At the end of the XIII century in Italy has created an environment for prosperity in the next century the proto-Renaissance through culture. Italian culture has always been secular rather than religious, and more urban. These features had an impact in architecture. In Italy spread only separate elements of the Gothic style: pointed arches, “rose-window”, while the Foundation of architecture remain purely Romanesque. Few Gothic cathedrals in Italy are striking for their “new Gothic” features. These are the cathedrals of Florence — Santa Croce, Santa Maria Novella, Santa Maria Fyora Affairs. The latter, for example, covered with a round dome and the bell tower (Campanile).
Horizontal lines in the Italian cathedrals dominate over vertical. The system of flying buttresses and buttresses almost completely alien to the Italian Gothic, the sculpture is poor and has little to do with the whole ensemble. The only exception is the enormous Cathedral that can accommodate up to 40,000 people, is the largest of all Gothic cathedrals in Italy (end of XIV — beginning of XV century the construction was completed in the nineteenth century), which has excessively lush sculptural outfit. The balance of the architectural features of the famous Florentine Church of Santa Maria Novella (XIII-ХIVв).
Italian Gothic is particularly well represented in the structures of civil architecture. The sights of the cities of Italy are magnificent Palazzo, an open gallery loggia and picturesque fountains. Decoration of Venice are brilliant, built of marble Doge’s Palace (XIV-XV centuries) and the Palace of CA d’oro (XV century) with an air arcades and Lancet Windows, very similar in style to the monuments of the Arab-Muslim architecture. In the FOURTEENTH and FIFTEENTH centuries, the Gothic style has slightly changed: it was late (or plum-Neusa) Gothic. Gothic cathedrals were complex and intricate decor and were usually overloaded with patterns and carvings. The characteristic features of medieval culture In General, the art of the late middle Ages gradually turns to the individual. Monumental painting (fresco, mosaic, etc.) were replaced easel (from the name of the machine is the easel on which was fixed a canvas). In sculpture and painting stands out for the viewer. Develops a carved wooden sculpture.