On the threshold of the XIII century in Europe there is a new style — Gothic. The name “Gothic” style was the Renaissance. Italian masters of the XV-XVII centuries, building on Greek and Roman art, not only revived the ideas and forms of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome, but also created new, except the art of the previous X-XII centuries barbaric, i.e. Gothic.
The name “Gothic” had nothing to do with the people — the Goths. Already in the Renaissance, when did the name “Gothic art”, is ready did not exist. This Germanic tribe of Ostrogoths was partially destroyed and partially merged with other tribes in the second half of the last Millennium.
One of the authors of this name was the great artist and architect of the Renaissance Raphael Santi. Being in France, he was discouraged and depressed new architecture, its design solutions. Architectural monuments of Ancient Greece and Ancient Rome stood before the eyes of Raphael and gave him the opportunity to understand a new style, a new direction in architecture. In his note to Pope Leo X about the visit to France, describing these facilities, he called them “the architecture of the barbarians, ready.”
Gothic style, Gothic architecture was a continuation of the Romanesque. These two styles had a lot in common, particularly the fact that the main building material was stone. But with that there was a wide difference in the construction of buildings. Romanesque architecture is characterized by excessive massiveness of the walls and arches, whereas Gothic was based on a light timber framing.
The beginning of the XIII century was marked by rapid urban growth, the increase in the population. Built large public buildings of the town hall, erected cathedrals. With the development of trade, crafts and built a special building.
The most outstanding technical achievement of Gothic architecture was the construction of a Gothic Cathedral — the new frame system. It became possible to build huge cathedrals, to reduce considerably the thickness of the walls, and hence the load of the PA, so in future it will be possible to create the necessary lighting of the main nave through the window openings in the side walls. Accordingly, the frame system has resulted in the saving of construction materials.
The main Gothic elements of the skeleton are ribs, buttresses, flying buttresses and bochkoobraznye pillars-columns. Rib — protruding ribs of the vault — had different profiles, outlines. They are in the form of arches transversely overlap the cell of the nave, laid with stones and later with the help of formwork (forms) built the arch. This design allowed to reduce the thickness of the arch and accordingly the weight of the arch, which in turn reduced the load on the column. The outline of such a Gothic ribbed vault has always been Lancet. The arch rested on bochkoobraznye column and not on the wall.
The main element of Gothic architecture is a truss, which consists of a were added and the buttress. When the system of ribbed vaults wall had great significance for the stability of the arch and increased the value of the buttress. Gels the building was one span, then the entire load is transferred to the buttresses. If the building was a three-day, buttresses separated from the supports of the middle nave and installed at the walls of the lateral naves, and the connecting element between the middle aisle, and the buttress was the were added — inclined semi-arch. But sometimes the flying buttresses did bunk is dependent on the height of the middle nave and the span of its arches.
The buttresses in cathedrals such the down had thickened since they had a double burden from the middle and lateral naves. To improve the stability of buttress, it increased the load in the form of turrets or pinnacles in the form of a pointed end — Fiala.
The huge Windows of Lancet shape filled the plane between the supports. The Windows had carved casements of multiple shape frames, which are consecutively inserted into each other. Sashes are filled with stained-glass Windows with images of saints or religious scenes. The Windows in the side walls additionally have been made of round rose Windows on the main façade and at the ends of the transept. The main facade of the Cathedral, and the Romanesque Church consisted of two towers, but their sizes were much larger. Majestic towers have become an integral part of a Gothic Cathedral. On the main facade arranged three inputs, of which the average was big. Inputs designed in the form of a Lancet, decreasing as the removal of the arches, terminated by triangular carved pediments — vinagame.
In the Gothic cathedrals of great importance was the sculpture. In the inner rooms everywhere you could see statues, small figures and reliefs.
A frame system was not only religious buildings. Wooden frames were used in housing construction. The wooden frame is called framing. Have a house with such a frame the first floor was stone and the upper floors, starting from the second, had a framing. The gaps in a wooden frame filled with brick. Windows in most cases were large. The roofs were covered with tiles.
The development of crafts and trade was accompanied by the construction of cities. Each craft had its place in the city street, alley, quart,’. In the cities there were two main squares — the Cathedral and shopping. On Cathedral square there was a Church, here came the citizens for any meetings. In the market square or near it was built the town hall here was erected stalls, alarm, the clock tower and the well or fountain. Trade area twine on all sides by galleries.
Medieval Romanesque and Gothic architecture seemed to the architects subsequent age barbaric, rude and scary. But the Romanesque and especially Gothic architects made a great contribution to the further development of architecture.
From the extant literature one can learn that the architects of that era knew methods to compute the size of parts of buildings and structures. They were interested in the problems of mechanics. Treatises have been preserved, which gives the dimensions of the constructions of cathedrals, taking into account not only ordinary loads, and vibration loads from the bell ringing.
It is difficult to agree with the architects of the Renaissance, the Gothic style was barbaric, reading the lines from the treatise of the Dominican monk Vincent de Beauvais “the Great mirror”, dedicated to architecture and construction business: “Architecture is born from practice and theory. Practice is a continuous exercise and the exercise actually performed by the hands. The theory is that shows and explains the calculations and the proportion of constructed facilities”.
People from a tribe of barbarians could not have written it.
Long before the emergence of the Gothic style in Europe, far beyond its borders, in Asia Minor, the great Armenian architect Trdat (the middle X — early XI century) building the famous iconic structure is a three-nave domed Basilica of Ani (989 – 1001.), which by its architectural significance is a work of global significance. In this structure, Tiridates was first used bochkoobraznye columns for internal pillars that supported the arches, and other structural elements of early Gothic architecture.
Three centuries later, these solutions have originated in Europe and first in France, where it developed its own traditions and directions thanks to the constructive scheme, which allows you to create a variety of forms. In France, the birthplace of the Gothic style, the buildings felt the proportionality horizontally and vertically, in England the main role was played by the horizontal line in Germany was dominated by vertical.
Some Gothic cathedrals were built a very long time, and by the end of construction from the original plans and ideas remained a little. For example, Cologne Cathedral in Germany was started in 1248 and finished in 1880; Milan Cathedral in Italy, begun in 1386, was completed in 1808; Notre Dame — Notre Dame de Paris built 1163 1345 with for a year.
This was due to the lack of construction experience in the construction of such buildings. Perhaps there were other reasons.
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