Gothic England

Gothic England

Gothic England arose very early, at the end of the twelfth century, and existed until the XVI century. It has one important difference from continental. Poor development of cities has led to the fact that the Gothic Cathedral and all the construction of the Gothic period was associated not with the city, and remained with the monasteries. English Cathedral arose not in the midst of urban development, and in the free space of the meadows and fields. The design of the Cathedral is completely manifested specific features of English Gothic architecture: the lack of bypass and the crown of chapels, some “flatness” of the building horizontally, the proportions in width, which contributes to a number of extensions, small tear in the height of the Central and side naves, is generally not very great height of the arches, broad, strongly projecting transepts, sometimes even two instead of a conventional one. As a specifically English trait can be called an enormous tower at the crossing — points of the Cathedral. The facades of English Gothic churches richly decorated. The interiors are much more differentiated, smaller than the French.

The most pure example of early English Gothic architecture — the Cathedral in Salisbury (1220-1270), sung later in the landscapes of constable. This three-nave Cathedral with a length of 140 m, with a large choir, two transepts and a rectangular apse. Additional decoration of the tower is the tallest in England, 135 m, and ends with a tent covering. In the Romanesque period was started on the Cathedral in Lincoln. In the Gothic era, its facade decorated with seven horizontal zones of niš, contrasting with its two towers has additional decoration. The Cathedral in Lincoln (length 155 m) in this sense, is built on a characteristic of the English Gothic contrast of verticals and horizontals. It arcature-columnar “through” the facade, as a Lacy network.

According to the forms of decor in the English Gothic style of the following styles: early (“Lancet”), “decorated” and “perpendicular”. Canterbury Cathedral (XII—XV centuries) — the main Gothic Cathedral in England, residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, national Shrine — demonstrates the development of English Gothic architecture from early (Eastern part of the temple, majestic in its simplicity) to late (for the West, a much more pretentious). Over all temporal objects stands a huge tower additional decoration.

The Westminster Abbey Cathedral in London, the place of coronation and burial of English kings since William the Conqueror, later the tomb of the great men of England, close to the French Gothic. With the French churches it has in common the presence of bypass and crown of chapels, flying buttresses and buttresses, is greater than is usual in English churches, the height of the nave towards a side. Westminster Cathedral was begun in the early Gothic style, and the Eastern part of the ancient West.

Starting from the hundred years war building in England is decreasing. Another old churches or chapels are attached (for example, at Windsor castle, the Royal chapel in Cambridge, the chapel of Henry VII in Westminster Abbey, etc.). All of these late structures bear the traces of a past style in decorations — “perpendicular” (last quarter of the XIV — mid XVI century), characterized by the lightness of the walls, lace pattern star and net vaults fanning out from the ribs (Church in Wales). From the civil architecture of this period the most famous Westminster Royal Palace (XVI century) with his Westminster hall 1500 sq. m.

Gothic sculpture in England is purely decorative and completely subordinated to the architecture. In the period of the “decorated” and “perpendicular” style in the Cathedral so much sculptural decoration, that, on fair comment the researchers, the impression of “vibration architectural forms”. The statues are put closely one to another and fill the façade, as in the Cathedral at wells (West facade). Memorial is also plastic.

Monumental Gothic painting in England is very poorly developed. One of the most interesting paintings are not monumental, and, according to ancient English tradition, miniature book, especially the schools of Canterbury and Winchester. As in French, in English miniature many elements of authentic real life (for example, gossip and liturgical books of the Eastern English school XIV century the most famous of which is the Psalter of Queen Mary, 1320).

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