The name “Gothic” was invented by the Italians to denote the style which they perceived as rude, wild worthy of the barbarians — are you ready. The so-called art that did not follow the classical rules.
The correct name of the style — the Lancet, as Lancet shape of the arch represents the most characteristic feature.
In the first period of the XIII century called early Gothic . This style this is tjazhelovato forms and is reminiscent of the Romanesque. The greatest temple of early Gothic architecture is the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris.
The Cathedral in Chartres is the transition to a Mature Gothic . Example of Mature Gothic architecture is the Cathedral in Reims and the Church of Sainte-Chapelle in Paris.
In the second period (XIV century) the flourishing of Gothic style, buildings of remarkable grace and beauty. As the whole building and its parts are given a light stretching in the height of the form, as if symbolizing the aspiration of the human spirit to God. The style of this period is called the radiant (rayonnant) or decorated (decore).
In the XV century and the first half of the XVI century of Gothic style, little by little decay, is ornate and exquisite. The third period is called flamboyant (fleuri), due to excess of jewelry, or flaming (flamboyant), appeared in him a kind of decorative motif, reminding him of the candle flame or fish bladder (Fischblasenstil).
Gothic art appears in cities where the main building is the Cathedral, it is the centre of medieval city life.
In their plan Gothic Church represents a three-or five-ship’s hull with little-developed transept, and sometimes quite without him, but with a very spacious choirs. Towers is mostly three: two large at the edges of the main, Western façade and one small over the intersection of a longitudinal body with a transept.
The most beautiful part of the temple — its Western facade; usually it was divided into three tiers. In the lower tier are three large arched entrance door. These portals are then bent forward, in the form of porches ( Porsches ), form a portico jutting inside. Above the portals is the gallery arcade, in the niches of which are set statues; sometimes this gallery to replace the Windows, including three that are located above the portals, the middle one has commonly the form of huge roses. The third tier of the portal is again gallery, above the middle of which is placed a triangular and crowned with a pinnacle (pinacle) gable. Towers are commonly tetrahedral shapes, are composed of several gradually tapering tiers and end high, ornamented-through-wood carving, roof.
All external walls of Gothic churches are profusely ornamented, down pipes off in the form of fantastic creatures ( gargoyles ). Large, often painted painting, Lancet Windows, decorated with fancy patterned covers.
Gothic secular buildings of the inferior nature of the Church;
these are: the town hall, exchange, house trade guilds, towers and other public buildings surviving in many cities. Many Gothic buildings of secular character have been preserved in Prague: see the Route on Gothic Prague
The Gothic style originated in France, and most of the monuments are there: Reims and Amiens cathedrals, “the Holy Chapel” and the Notre Dame Cathedral in Paris .
In Germany, Cologne and Regensburg cathedrals; in England: Westminster Abbey and York Minster; in Italy: Milan Cathedral. the monastery of St. Francis in Assisi; in Spain: Burgos Cathedral; the St. Vitus Cathedral in the Czech Republic.