he Great Wall Of China
The great Wall of China — a Grand structure of the planet. The history of the sights
There are historical monuments, whose creation marked a huge human sacrifices and hardships they had to endure for future generations for the realization of the Grand idea. Perhaps the first place in this list will occupy the Great Wall — the symbol of the state and largest cemetery.
The Foundation of the building bricked up body builders, who gave his life giant construction, which lasted according to various testimonies about 2 thousand years. The scale of the project affects even modern architects and builders, and the length of the wall is still a matter of dispute among researchers. Different sources name figures from 8851 km to 21 km 196, but acknowledge that wall is the longest artificial structure in the world.
The ruling dynasty, the construction cost of overthrowing and revolution and people made up legends and tales, where this event is referred to as the greatest disaster for ordinary people. All paid a heavy price. Over the centuries the building has acquired myths and legends, some of them have already appeared in our time. For example, the claim that the Chinese wall can be seen from space that many believe is faithful still, despite numerous refutations, photos :
The monument is not a solid continuous structure, but a series of individual segments. Therefore, it is still tense debate about the length of wall of China, although the Chinese call it “the Wall of 10 thousand Li”.
The history of the construction of the controversial, and much of what is associated with China. In open source there are several versions.
Why did the idea of the wall — China the Warring kingdoms in third century BC
The idea to enclose the city or the state forbidding postroyki to protect it from predatory incursions of neighbors very often come in the heads of the rulers of the Ancient world. Suffice it to recall the fortress, are scattered over all the continents of the planet. But on such an ambitious project raised only the Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi in the third century BC.
At this time, the vast territory of China was constantly ravaged by nomadic tribes of the Xiongnu. Whatever numerous and was not trained regular army of the Emperor, she was unable to protect the citizens-farmers from murders and fires. Enemies took suddenness and brutality. Tangible human and financial costs required decisive action.
There was another side of the problem. The population disgruntled with the Emperor, who very much changed in their way of life, and very often passed on the side of the nomads. Subjects who are required to handle the fertile southern lands and to strengthen the power of the state, flowed from the territory of the Empire to the North.
So the construction of the Emperor strengthened border and from external attacks and from the migration of their own citizens.
How were construction sights
There is evidence that the first sections of this Grand facility was built in 656 BC in the Chu Kingdom. Small kingdoms, constantly warring among themselves, were building barricades. Emperor Qin Shi-Huang-ti, who managed to unite the country in 221 BC ordered to complete and interconnect the already existing structures. Prepared fragments of the fortification was to the North, and areas with the length of the wall from West to East had to start building from scratch.
Construction began on the Liaotung Peninsula and passed through 10 provinces on the ridges of inaccessible mountains, steppes, marshes, and deserts. Everywhere had to overcome the complexity of the terrain and develop the appropriate place of the structure.
This was introduced a special service, which was served, and the soldiers and peasants. Last used on the most difficult jobs, so almost none of them returned home. More than one million people were sacrificed in the construction.
Not one generation of the ancient Chinese people grew during the period of construction, on the throne has changed several dynasties, every Emperor contributed in a great building. So there have been changes with the length of the wall — it was gradually increased and encircled all the Empire stone.
Looked like a wall during the construction
All parts of the great Wall of China, extant, historians refer to the time of the Ming dynasty (1368-1644 gg BC) Protective building height from 7 to 10 m and a width of 4-5 m allowed on top to move the horse carriage and was almost inaccessible for the warriors of antiquity. The outer side was of huge boulders, and the inner was paved with smaller stones, pebbles and clay.
Inside there were stairs by which the defenders can easily climb up. Individual attention, watch and signal towers, their total number throughout the length of the wall reached 25 thousand. Each tower is a full — fledged fortification with an area of 60 m2, where they could escape the soldiers of the garrison, stored weapons and ammunition.
Mountains, immediately adjacent to the building, served as additional natural protection, but most of the construction had been on the ridge is added invulnerability, but incredibly complicated construction.
To date only about 8% the building has retained its original appearance, even the length of the wall cannot be determined accurately.
Recent history of the magnificent building
Once again, interest in historic sites originated in the mid-20th century, when the Chinese government is seriously engaged in the restoration of the memo, intending to make it a place of tourist visits. Named during the cultural revolution 1966-78, the symbol of despotism, the wall is subject to deliberate destruction, so in need of expensive restoration.
Outpost near Beijing — Badaling, Mutianyu, Simatai, Shanhaiguan fortress on the Eastern tip of the wall — “Maritime customs” in Liaodong Bay and the fortress Jiayuguan in the West opened to the public. All along the walls in these areas has equipped observation deck, where at any time of the year tend to get travelers from China and abroad.
The history of the buildings studied and popularized. Young people nurture respect for the engineering feat of the ancestors. The first persons of foreign States demonstrate respect for Chinese history it is in the vicinity of great reminders.
The research and discoveries of scientists, interesting facts about the famous monument
For a long time it was believed that the Chinese wall from space visible to the naked eye. This myth is still prevalent, but the astronauts have flown in orbit, say. that building becomes invisible already at an altitude of 180 miles, which is about 290 km.
According to the legend, the boundaries of buildings were determined personally by the Emperor Qin Shi Huangdi, horseback traveling across the country’s route became a loop construction.
In the press with a periodicity of once every few years new data about the extent of the wall — a recent study in 2012 has identified a number 21196 km.
At the sensational version, which categorically do not agree Chinese historians, the age of the monument does not exceed 300 years, and it was built to mark the border between States. Recall that China had made at the time of the border war with the Russian Empire. Proponents of the hypothesis cite many indirect facts:
— surprisingly good condition of ancient buildings, than can not boast of any structure of this age in Europe;
— rapid destruction in recent decades, which is quite typical, if stone sights a couple of centuries;
— appearance on European maps only in the seventeenth century of our era.
The contour of the structure resembles a dragon, which the Chinese regarded as a deity of vitality and revival.
The adhesive solution, which was reinforced with stone blocks all along the walls, contained rice flour — this technology was used by Chinese builders up to the XVII century ad And a well-known wheelbarrow was invented and started to use it is the builders of fortifications.
A UNESCO World Heritage site, wall, however, is not one of the wonders of the ancient world. But the most visited reminder of China is undoubtedly and this is confirmed even in the Guinness Book of world records.
About 40 million tourists a year climb the ancient towers to experience the grandeur of the Wall in its entirety and to pay tribute to engineering genius and dedication of the Chinese people.