The great structures

The main features of the relief of Russia

Relief — a set of land surface roughness. Depend on other components of nature. The slope of the surface determines the direction of flow of rivers and moving glaciers. An extensive low plains air masses move freely over large distances, and the mountains block their path. Mountainous terrain is an obstacle not only winds, but also the distribution of plants and animals. The nature of the surface is of great importance for life and economic activity. Plain more convenient for settlements, for the construction of Railways to agriculture and constructions of industrial enterprises. Mountains often associated with mining enterprises and sectors of agriculture — livestock.

The placement of large forms of relief. Russia is located North of the belt of high mountain ranges, crossing Eurasia from West to East from the Iberian Peninsula to the Himalayas. The topography is highly heterogeneous and contrasting. Its highest point — Elbrus mountain in the Caucasus — 5642 m reaches, and the coast of the Caspian sea is 28 meters below Global sea level. More than half of Russia’s territory is made of plains. To the West of the Yenisei are mostly low plains: Eastern European (Russian) and Western-Siberian. They are separated by the low Ural mountains. To the East of the Yenisei area is raised. Here is an extensive elevated plain is the Central Siberian plateau. On the East and partially in the South of Russia are climbing mountains. General the slope of the surface of the country is directed to the North, to the shores of the Arctic ocean, where their waters are the biggest rivers of Russia: Ob river, Yenisei, Lena.

Physical map find all the listed geographic features (plains, mountains, peaks, rivers).

Locate on a map and name the mountains located at the southern tip of our country.

To understand distribution patterns of topography, to explain contemporary differences in the topography of specific areas, it is necessary to study their origin and development.

What two groups of processes shape the landscape? What internal processes do you know? The occurrence of any of the landforms associated with these processes? Give examples. What external processes you studied? What landforms do they create?

The structure of the earth’s crust. Of course the geography of continents and oceans

you know the history of most forms of relief — a history of vanished oceans and colliding continents. The territory of Russia and the whole Eurasia, was formed by gradual convergence and collision of separate major lithospheric plates and their fragments. The structure of the major lithospheric plates, which were formed over many hundreds of millions and billions of years, is not homogeneous. Within them there are relatively stable areas of the platform and movable fold belt, which arose at different times in the peripheral parts of tectonic plates when they collide with each other. The presence of a fold belt in the inner parts of the litho-sphere plates (e.g., the Urals) suggests that once there was a border of two plates, strongly spavaca each other and turned into a single, larger lithospheric plate. The structure of lithospheric plates depends on the placement of the largest sushi landforms — plains and mountains. Plains are large structures of lithospheric plates — platforms. Mountain facilities comply orogen. Plains and mountains are different from each other not only the absolute and relative heights, but also the nature of the rock bedding. The movement of lithospheric plates (horizontal and vertical) and continued at the present time. They are particularly active in the border areas of the plates. So here is are the seismic zone and are the highest mountains. In the North-East Eurasian plate moves away from the North American. In the South-East broke away from the Eurasian plate and the Amur are gradually beginning to move away from it. Formed in the deep hollow there was the lake Baikal. Mutual displacement of the plates and separate blocks cause the growth of mountain ranges and depressions. On the East by Eurasia moving closer with a velocity of about 8 cm/yr ocean floor of the Pacific ocean. Here on the border of the Pacific and Okhotsk tectonic plates developed modern volcanism and its landforms.

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